It has been established now that the whole of Amritsar district was a part of the vast area covered under Indus valley Civilization during the early period of history. This civilization developed prior to the Aryans civilization in this region. These evidences for the prevalence of this ancient civilization in this district of Punjab have been furnished by the discovery of certain sites by the archaeologist. The important sites pertaining to Indus valley civilization in Amritsar district are as under:-
In addition to above, several sites also lie in a row in the Ravi, Beas , Doab.
Even in ancient times, trade was a primary factor in the urban development of societies. The Indus valley civilization also flourished with the growth of trade by overland and sea routes. It has been proved by the discovery of various seals of the ancient sites. Ever since the discovery of the Indus Civilization, attempts have made to decipher the Indus script. In this respect, many theories have been propounded about the use of the seals, and the language used therein has been taught to be Sanskrit or Dravadian or an ancestors form thereof, depending largely on the initial approach of the scholars concerned. However, it has been now been established that the direction of writing of Indus script is from right to left. Many effects about Indus civilization will come to light as soon as Indus script is deciphered. During the vedic period, the area now belonging to Amritsar district is believed to be the abode of many Saints and Sages. According to a legend, it was at Ramtirth that Sita took shelter in the Ashram(Cottage) of Rishi(Saint) Balmiki during her exile. Both love and Kush received there education at Ramtirth by the learned Sage Balmiki.
The area of the Amritsar district also came under the Greek influence when in about 326 B.C., the area of Punjab up to the bank of river Beas was conquered by Alexander. Later on, it became part of Maurya and Gupta empire.
After the overthrow of Greeks, the area of Amritsar district became a part of the Mighty mauryan empire which extended up to Afghanistan. The most enlightened ruler of the mauryan was Ashoka, the great, who during the reign of his father Chandergupta Mauyara was the Viceroy of the principality of Taxila which included the area of present Amritsar district. Subsequently from the beginning of the 4th century to the end of the 6th century, it had the privilege of being under Gupta administration, which because of its efficiency is known as the golden age of Hindu period. Chandergupta was the most famous emperor of Gupta dynasty. Later on, it came under Kushan rulers and Kanishka was the most important ruler of this dynasty. With the rise of Rajputs, it began to be ruled by Rajputs till it became a part of the Shahi Kingdom of Punjab. It is believed that brave people of Majha formed a significant part of the armies of mauryan, Gupta, Kushan and Shahi rulers.